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i don't really understand what AID is unless its a collection of interfacing smart tracks over time and across goals that ultimately connect goodwill of a nation with sustainability goals

Before the elections at public meetings I asked several of Washington's laregst aid organisations why not Blockchain transparency for the publics you serve? I couldnt

work out whether the replies indiscated a lack of understaning of what blockchain does or some big misunerstanding on my part. I will keep asking as I am here to learn



Norman Macrae Foundation, 5801 Nicholson Lane Suite 404, N Bethesda MD 20852

Tel 240 316 8157  email student webs


Professor Paul Romer

World Bank

1818 H Street, NW

Washington , DC 20433


Dear Paul Romer


Would you have time for a meeting? I am the son of Norman Macrae who as sub-editor of The Economist started the 1972 curriculum of Entrepreneurial Revolution. This is concerned with how the net generation can be the greatest learning generation provided elder generations invest in  co-creating 3 billion (mainly microfranchised) new jobs- roughly one billion renew planet, one billion end poverty and renew every community, one billion way above zero sum in applying the open learning economy.


I believe that 3 of the top 10 world record new job creators are Jim Kim and Jack Ma and Sir Fazle Abed. That Blockchain projects can unite their alumni with or without support from America’s new president. That smart contracts integrating relevant open system frameworks on Big Data analysis geared to linking in worldwide free trade of SMEs, investing in 21st C infrastructure on world trade routes such as One Belt One Road, other G20 collaboration projects such as progress on green finance that China worked so hard on converging around the Hangzhou consensus and optimising professional student exchanges with the communities facing the greatest problems. Moreover I think the coursera MOOC format presents a stunning missed opportunity that fits Kim, Ma and 28 other national leaders call at to design the greatetst #learningenereation


Suppose an on-demand coursera on climate crisis solutions started with those biggest funds that wanted to interface each other and was co-programmed with a shark tank but social value style reality tv program where the contestants might include mayors and affiliated universities. Build the coursera on demand with more and more collaborative researchers as inputs that can also be engineered as the smart contracts of a block chain (transparent web of value exchanges). In this format students would join in not to get a paper certificate but to be included in the greatest progress in the world, to help become peer to peer local mentors and be able to suggest what was missing from every salient aspect of worldwide diversity


It might be that that there are simpler starting contexts. Smart contacts uniting last mile health services and those minimising future chances of ebola etc would be a context where identifying who to start with would be fairly easy. In fact I think Larry Brilliant originally aimed to map that at but the paradigm of blockchain didn’t exist then. The other problem with this context is that many of the contacts would be former partners of Jim Kim and youth summit bank watchers have the suspicion that he has been contracted not to link in such favorites from the past. Otherwise why wouldnt there already be a world bank last mile health coursera and why wouldn’t Paul Farmer ever be celebrated by young professionals in DC/MD ?


Yours sincerely




Chris Macrae 


Media Lab Learning

"Education is something that is done to you. Learning is something you do for yourself." - Joi Ito

ML Learning is a new MIT Media Lab initiative that promotes creative learning: projects, peers, passion, and play. It ties together learning related research that takes place across different research groups, develops new technologies for creative learning, and uses the Media Lab as platform for new conversations about learning.

is 50 times better value colege degrees now possible in china


set up a university with no teaching of courses - all tutoring and credentialising of moocs-

students agtrees with faculty curriculum of moocs- faculty ( a lot viortual) set up to mentor and confirm students has accomplished

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satosthi started bitcoin talk nov 2009;u=3;sa=showPosts;start=520

521 Bitcoin / Development & Technical Discussion / Re: A few suggestionson: December 14, 2009, 05:15:56 PM
Can anyone shed some light here?

g++ -c -O0 -Wno-invalid-offsetof -Wformat -g -D__WXMAC__ -DNOPCH -DBUILD_MACOSX -I"/usr/include" -I"/usr/local/include/wx-2.8" -I"/usr/local/include" -I"/usr/local/boost_1_41_0" -I"/sw/include/db4" -I"/usr/local/ssl/include" -I"/usr/local/lib/wx/include/mac-ansi-release-2.8" -o headers.h.gch headers.h
ui.h:430: error: no matching function for call to 'wxTextCtrl::SetValue(const std::basic_string<char, std::char_traits<char>, std::allocator<char> >&)'
/usr/local/include/wx-2.8/wx/textctrl.h:303: note: candidates are: virtual void wxTextCtrlBase::SetValue(const wxString&)

It looks like the implicit conversion from std::string to wxString isn't working.  That's used everywhere, the conversion needs to work.

wxString is complicated by supporting win32's 16-bit wchar and 8-bit ansi dual-compile.  You can get that problem on Windows if the "unicode" (meaning wchar) build is used, so that wxString is wchar and std::string is char.

It's probably some wxWidgets compile defines or build configuration.  What "configure" options did you use?

I'm not sure __WXMAC__ is the right define.  It may be the Mac Classic support that's complicating wxString, and we only want OSX.  Try __WXOSX__ (or see below)
"There are two wxWidgets ports to Mac OS. One of them, wxMac, exists in two versions: Classic and Carbon. The Classic version is the only one to work on Mac OS version 8. The Carbon version may be built either as CFM or Mach-O (binary format, like ELF) and the former may run under OS 9 while the latter only runs under OS X. Finally, there is a new Cocoa port which can only be used under OS X. To summarize:

    * If you want to test for all Mac platforms, classic and OS X, you should test both __WXMAC__ and __WXCOCOA__.
    * If you want to test for any GUI Mac port under OS X, use __WXOSX__.
    * If you want to test for any port under Mac OS X, including, for example, wxGTK and also wxBase, use __DARWIN__"
522 Bitcoin / Development & Technical Discussion / Re: A few suggestionson: December 13, 2009, 04:51:25 PM
There would be a command line switch at runtime to tell it to run without UI.  All it needs to do is not create the main window.  A simplistic way would be to disable "pframeMain->Show" and "ptaskbaricon->Show" in ui.cpp.  The network threads don't care that the UI isn't there.  The only other UI is a message box in CheckDiskSpace if it runs out of disk space.

Then a separate command line utility to communicate with it to do things.  Not sure what it should be named.

"natural deflation"... I like that name for it.  Yes, there will be natural deflation due to payment mistakes and lost data.  Coin creation will eventually get slow enough that it is exceeded by natural deflation and we'll have net deflation.
523 Bitcoin / Development & Technical Discussion / Re: A few suggestionson: December 12, 2009, 06:17:10 PM
I almost have the svn 0.2 compiling on Mac OS X 10.4.11/Intel (I also have a PPC970 machine here as well so a PPC build would be possible as well). The windowing is native carbon too via wxwidgets! It is FAST! Wink I had to create a new makefile (makefile.osx; based on makefile.unix of course.. given any thought to using autoconf?) and put some ifdef's into header.h. I have patches. I will keep toying around. I might try it on FreeBSD next.
Mac support would be nice.  wxWidgets really pays off for cross platform.

Please don't try PPC.  PPC is big-endian and Bitcoin is little-endian, there would be endless endian bugs making it harder for me to debug the network if there's a potentially byte-swapping node out there.  PPC is on its way out anyway.

Considered autoconf.  Autoconf is a necessity for large projects with a quagmire makefile, but I think we're small enough that it's more optimal without it.  I'd rather keep the makefile simple as long as possible.

I think that breaking bitcoin into two apps is ideal. A wxwidgets front end (since it is mostly all there) and a backend that binds to a control TCP socket. I have been reading over the source to see how hard it would be to break it apart and I think it should be fairly simple. Of course an API would have to be developed.
My head hurts just thinking about that.  Funnelling all the UI backend through a TCP connection would make everything twice as hard.  There's too much bandwidth between the UI and the internal data structures in order to keep the listview control updated, because of the way the listview control works.

I'd rather have command line control, that would get us remote admin and batch automation.
524 Bitcoin / Development & Technical Discussion / Re: A few suggestionson: December 12, 2009, 05:52:44 PM
The average total coins generated across the network per day stays the same.  Faster machines just get a larger share than slower machines.  If everyone bought faster machines, they wouldn't get more coins than before.

We should have a gentleman's agreement to postpone the GPU arms race as long as we can for the good of the network.  It's much easer to get new users up to speed if they don't have to worry about GPU drivers and compatibility.  It's nice how anyone with just a CPU can compete fairly equally right now.
525 Bitcoin / Development & Technical Discussion / Re: A few suggestionson: December 11, 2009, 07:27:55 PM
Right, the SVN has the almost-release-candidate 0.2 source, which can also be built and run on Linux.   It hasn't been tested on FreeBSD.

If we can get to the point where we have a working backend process that will run on FreeBSD I can run always-on seeds.
That would be a big help.  TOR users wouldn't have to worry about how to get seeded, and we wouldn't depend on IRC.

It can be run in a few simple modes without access to the UI if you don't mind a minimized window on the desktop.  (0.1.5 doesn't have -min so it would be an open window)

To only run a seed:
bitcoin -min -gen=0

You could sort of monitor it by looking at debug.log.  To stop it, kill the process, the database won't mind.

To generate:
bitcoin -min -gen

To get the generated bitcoins, you'd have to copy wallet.dat (with version 0.2) to a machine with a UI, swap in the wallet.dat, run bitcoin and transfer the coins to your main account.  (With version 0.1.5 you'd have to copy the whole "%appdata%/Bitcoin" directory.)  There is one caveat about copying wallet.dat: if you happened to kill the program at the exact moment that it generated a coin or received a payment, wallet.dat might not work by itself and you'd have to copy the whole directory.

I really think that having the download package contain a daily seed snapshot will improve the bootstrapping. I have seen instances on new test installs here where the application will sit with 0 connections / 1 block. Upon inspecting the debug.log I find that the IRC server (freenode, I believe) claims I am already connected and refuses to let me seed the application. (Just an example).
I see, that would happen with multiple nodes using the same NAT or VPN or some ISP that funnels everyone through a few proxy servers.  I just committed a fix to SVN for this.  If it gets "433" name already in use (it was error 433, right?), it'll retry with a non-address random username.  

In any event, I would like to help. I have a lot of time and a project like this one is very exciting.
That's great, any help is really appreciated!
526 Bitcoin / Bitcoin Discussion / Re: Questions about Bitcoinon: December 11, 2009, 05:58:57 PM
That's true, with the send-to-IP option, you are sending to whoever answers that IP.  Sending to a bitcoin address doesn't have that problem.

The plan is to implement an IP + bitcoin address option that would have the benefits of both.  It would still use a different address for each transaction, but the receiver would sign the one-time-use address with the given bitcoin address to prove it belongs to the intended receiver.
527 Bitcoin / Bitcoin Discussion / Re: Questions about Bitcoinon: December 10, 2009, 08:49:02 PM
For that level of anonymity you need to connect through TOR, which will be possible with version 0.2, which is only a few weeks away.  I'll post TOR instructions at that time.

Version 0.1.5: backup the whole %appdata%\Bitcoin directory.
Version 0.2: you can backup just wallet.dat.

Nope.  The whole design is all about preventing that from working.

Those coins can never be recovered, and the total circulation is less.  Since the effective circulation is reduced, all the remaining coins are worth slightly more.  It's the opposite of when a government prints money and the value of existing money goes down.

It's currently 29,296 blocks.  The circulation is the number of blocks times 50, so the current circulation is 1,464,800 bc.  

If you only have 24k blocks, it must not have finished the initial block download.  Exit bitcoin and start it again.  Version 0.2 is better/faster at the initial block download.

Typically a few hundred right now.  It's easy now but it'll get harder as the network grows.

Good question, it's TCP.  The website needs to be updated to say TCP port 8333.

The port forwarding is so other nodes can connect to you, so it helps you stay connected because you are able to be connected with more nodes.  You also need it to receive payments by IP address.

No, the other nodes won't accept that.

Being open source means anyone can independently review the code.  If it was closed source, nobody could verify the security.  I think it's essential for a program of this nature to be open source.

Slower machines produce fewer coins.  It's proportional to CPU speed.

There are more coming.

It uses a transactional database called Berkeley DB.  It will not lose data in a system crash.  Transactions are written to the database immediately when they're received.

For now, you can just multiply the total blocks by 50.  The Bitcoin network has been running for almost a year now.  The design and coding started in 2007.
528 Bitcoin / Development & Technical Discussion / Re: A few suggestionson: December 10, 2009, 07:31:49 PM
Front ends can also be ran on clients with very low cpu power such as mobile phones. 
That's a good approach for mobile.  Programmatic API used by PHP (any language) to present a web UI covers remote admin, mobile and any other client that can't be online all the time with a static IP.  It would be like webmail.  It would be easier for new users to get started if they only need to create an account on a website, not install software.

The app could be pre-seeded before downloading. Pre-seeding would also cure the TOR+IRC problem. I know that people will want to run this system over I2P+TOR.
Yeah, we can phase out IRC when there are enough static nodes to preprogram a seed list.  Once you get seeded, you don't need IRC.

Also you could pre-seed the blocks so they won't have to be downloaded upon initial run. (Downloading 28,000 blocks on a slower ADSL takes forever I couldn't imagine how long it would take when there are millions of blocks -- a lifetime).
There were some issues in 0.1.5 where the initial block download could get bogged down.  0.2 has code to make sure it goes smoothly.  It ought to take less than an hour, I think.  I need to hurry up and get 0.2 out the door.

The blocks increase linearly, it'll be decades before it's millions.  In theory, the block download time should top out 8 months from now when Moore's Law will be growing faster than the block chain.

Can you give me CVS access or something? (If not, can I send you patches?) I'd like to help out. 
It's SVN on sourceforge.  PM or e-mail me your sourceforge account and I'll give you access.

I am mostly a Linux/BSD guy and I would like to lend my expertise in those areas.
That's great because that's where I have less expertise.  For instance, I haven't researched the best way to do the "Start Bitcoin on system startup" feature on Linux.  On Windows, the option adds/removes an icon in the Startup folder.
529 Bitcoin / Development & Technical Discussion / Re: A few suggestionson: December 09, 2009, 06:45:10 PM
Helpful suggestions, thanks.

- When the bitcoin software establishes a connection with a peer (client TCP socket) have the client send the handshake string. Right now you have the server (server TCP socket) send the handshake. My reasons for this are anonymity of course. It is far too easy for ISPs to portscan clients and detect they are running this program.
That's a good idea.  The side accepting the connection just needs to withhold from sending anything until it receives a valid handshake.  Any portscan would only get a dead connection that doesn't volunteer to identify itself. 

- Use some sort of encryption during the handshake (sort of goes with the statement/request above) to obfuscate what the software is during DPI (deep packet inspection). I am really thinking about people in non-free (as in freedom) countries such as China/Iran.
I have thought about eventually SSLing all the connections.  I assume anything short of SSL would be pointless against DPI.  Maybe a better more immediate solution is to connect through TOR, which will be possible with 0.2.  

- Some sort of an API is needed so that this system can be integrated with websites to provide instant-on services. A simple https receipt mechanism would do wonders. Have the client post each incoming payment to an https url with all of the relevant information and provide status updates. Also an outbound payment mechanism would be nice. So one could automate payments (and batch payments) outbound. Status could be returned via the https receipt interface.
That's one of the main things on the agenda after 0.2.

- Static port/Random port. Have a setting to randomly assign the port that it runs on. (also be able to set it statically for very restrictive firewalls).
Yeah, the other stealth stuff would be kinda pointless if it's always the same port number.

- UPnP support. Have the client automatically create the port forward on upstream routers. Enabled by default. Can be turned off in the options menu.
I'm looking forward to trying UPnP.  Do most P2P clients typically have UPnP enabled by default?

- Ability to compile a headless (console only) install for *NIX systems. Also have the ability to just run as a network service. Perhaps with a telnet-able port for control (or even a unix socket would be ok).
I'm still thinking about how best to structure the management interface.  Maybe command line commands to communicate with the background daemon to query transactions received and initiate sending transfers.  That would be more automation friendly.  Or what about an http interface on some port other than 80 to manage it with a browser?

530 Bitcoin / Bitcoin Discussion / [OLD THREAD] Bitcoin version 0.2 development statuson: November 27, 2009, 10:48:39 PM
We've been working hard on improvements for the next version release.  Martti (sirius-m) added some nice features to make it more user friendly and easier to run in the background:
 - Minimize to system tray option
 - Autostart on boot option so you can keep it running in the background automatically
 - New options dialog layout
 - Setup EXE for Windows, in addition to the archive download

I've been working on a number of refinements to the networking code and laying the groundwork for future functionality.  Also coming in version 0.2:
 - Multi-processor support for coin generation
 - Proxy support
531 Bitcoin / Bitcoin Discussion / Re: Repost: Linux/UNIX compileon: November 27, 2009, 05:27:09 PM
The Linux version is on its way.  Martti's Linux port was merged into the main code branch and New Liberty Standard has been testing it.  It'll be in the next release, version 0.2.

Command line is on the to-do list after 0.2.
532 Bitcoin / Bitcoin Discussion / Repost: Linux/UNIX compileon: November 27, 2009, 05:17:22 PM
Linux/UNIX compile
Posted:Thu 08 of Oct, 2009 (05:49 UTC)

Can we get instructions or modifications to compile and install BitCoin on Linux? A command line version would be great.
533 Bitcoin / Bitcoin Discussion / Re: Repost: How anonymous are bitcoins?on: November 25, 2009, 06:17:23 PM
> Can nodes on the network tell from which and or to which bitcoin 
> address coins are being sent? Do blocks contain a history of where 
> bitcoins have been transfered to and from?

Bitcoins are sent to and from bitcoin addresses, which are essentially random numbers with no identifying information.

When you send to an IP address, the transaction is still written to a bitcoin address.  The IP address is only used to connect to the recipient's computer to request a fresh bitcoin address, give the transaction directly to the recipient and get a confirmation. 

Blocks contain a history of the bitcoin addresses that a coin has been transferred to.  If the identities of the people using the bitcoin addresses are not known and each address is used only once, then this information only reveals that some unknown person transferred some amount to someone else.

The possibility to be anonymous or pseudonymous relies on you not revealing any identifying information about yourself in connection with the bitcoin addresses you use.  If you post your bitcoin address on the web, then you're associating that address and any transactions with it with the name you posted under.  If you posted under a handle that you haven't associated with your real identity, then you're still pseudonymous.

For greater privacy, it's best to use bitcoin addresses only once.  You can change addresses as often as you want using Options->Change Your Address.  Transfers by IP address automatically use a new bitcoin address each time.

> Can nodes tell which bitcoin addresses belong to which IP addresses?


> Is there a command line option to enable the sock proxy the first
> time that bitcoin starts?

In the next release (version 0.2), the command line to run it through a proxy from the first time is:
bitcoin -proxy=

The problem for TOR is that the IRC server which Bitcoin uses to initially discover other nodes bans the TOR exit nodes, as all IRC servers do.  If you've already connected once before then you're already seeded, but for the first time, you'd need to provide the address of a node as such:
bitcoin -proxy= -addnode=<someipaddress>

If someone running a node with a static IP address that can accept incoming connections could post their IP to use for -addnode, that would be great.

> What happens if you send bitcoins to an IP address that has multiple
> clients connected through network address translation (NAT)?

Whichever one you've set your NAT to forward port 8333 to will receive it.  If your router can change the port number when it forwards, you could allow more than one client to receive.  For instance, if port 8334 forwards to a computer's port 8333, then senders could send to "x.x.x.x:8334" 

If your NAT can't translate port numbers, there currently isn't a command line option to change the incoming port that bitcoin binds to, but I'll look into it.
534 Bitcoin / Bitcoin Discussion / Repost: How anonymous are bitcoins?on: November 25, 2009, 06:15:57 PM
How anonymous are bitcoins?

Can nodes on the network tell from which and or to which bitcoin address coins are being sent? Do blocks contain a history of where bitcoins have been transfered to and from? Can nodes tell which bitcoin addresses belong to which IP addresses? Is there a command line option to enable the sock proxy the first time that bitcoin starts? What happens if you send bitcoins to an IP address that has multiple clients connected through network address translation (NAT)?
535 Bitcoin / Bitcoin Discussion / Re: Repost: Request: Make this anonymous?on: November 22, 2009, 06:35:15 PM
There will be a proxy setting in version 0.2 so you can connect through TOR.  I've done a careful scrub to make sure it doesn't use DNS or do anything that would leak your IP while in proxy mode.
536 Bitcoin / Bitcoin Discussion / Re: Repost: Bitcoin Maturationon: November 22, 2009, 06:34:21 PM
It's important to have network connectivity while you're trying to generate a coin (block) and at the moment it is successfully generated.

1) During generation (when the status bar says "Generating" and you're using CPU to find a proof-of-work), you must constantly keep in contact with the network to receive the latest block. If your block does not link to the latest block, it may not be accepted.

2) When you successfully generate a block, it is immediately broadcast to the network.  Other nodes must receive it and link to it for it to be accepted as the new latest block.

Think of it as a cooperative effort to make a chain.  When you add a link, you must first find the current end of the chain.  If you were to locate the last link, then go off for an hour and forge your link, come back and link it to the link that was the end an hour ago, others may have added several links since then and they're not going to want to use your link that now branches off the middle.

After a block is created, the maturation time of 120 blocks is to make absolutely sure the block is part of the main chain before it can be spent.  Your node isn't doing anything with the block during that time, just waiting for other blocks to be added after yours.  You don't have to be online during that time.
537 Bitcoin / Bitcoin Discussion / Repost: Request: Make this anonymous?on: November 22, 2009, 06:32:00 PM
Request: Make this anonymous?
Posted:Thu 15 of Oct, 2009 (19:58 UTC)

Are there any plans to make this service anonymous?

e.g; Being able to route BitCoin through Tor.
538 Bitcoin / Bitcoin Discussion / Repost: Bitcoin Maturationon: November 22, 2009, 06:31:44 PM
Bitcoin Maturation
Posted:Thu 01 of Oct, 2009 (14:12 UTC)

From the user's perspective the bitcoin maturation process can be broken down into 8 stages.

1. The initial network transaction that occurs when you first click Generate Coins.
2. The time between that initial network transaction and when the bitcoin entry is ready to appear in the All Transactions list.
3. The change of the bitcoin entry from outside the All Transaction field to inside it.
4. The time between when the bitcoin appears in the All Transfers list and when the Description is ready to change to Generated (50.00 matures in x more blocks).
5. The change of the Description to Generated (50.00 matures in x more blocks).
6. The time between when the Description says Generated (50.00 matures in x more blocks) to when it is ready to change to Generated.
7 The change of the Description to Generated.
8. The time after the Description has changed to Generated.

Which stages require network connectivity, significant local CPU usage and or significant remote CPU usage? Do any of these stages have names?

Re: Bitcoin Maturation
Posted:Thu 22 of Oct, 2009 (02:36 UTC)

As far as I know, there's no network transaction when you click Generate Coins - your computer just starts calculating the next proof-of-work.  The CPU usage is 100% when you're generating coins.

In this example, the network connection is used when you broadcast the information about the proof-of-work block you've created (that which entitles you to the new coin). Generating coins successfully requires constant connectivity, so that you can start working on the next block when someone gets the current block before you.
539 Bitcoin / Bitcoin Discussion / Welcome to the new Bitcoin forum!on: November 22, 2009, 06:04:28 PM
Welcome to the new Bitcoin forum!

The old forum can still be reached here:

I'll repost some selected threads here and add updated answers to questions where I can.



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Alibaba founder Jack Ma unveils ambitious plan

Mission: 100 million new jobs

By Dana McCauley

He already runs the world's biggest online shopping company, but Alibaba founder Jack Ma is not satisfied.

The Chinese billionaire has unveiled an even more ambitious plan to expand the company's reach across the globe, creating 100 million new jobs and transforming the global economy to create a more equitable world.

It may sound pie-in-the-sky, but the goal forms part of mission statement of the US$261 billion company's visionary executive chairman.

In a letter to shareholders, Ma outlined Alibaba's achievements of the past financial year - including a gross merchandise turnover of more than $195 billion (1 trillion RMB), an "unprecedented" figure - before looking to the future.

"We have more than 430 million annual active buyers, which means one out of every three individuals in China has made a purchase on our retail marketplaces," Ma wrote.

But, he said, while proud of Alibaba's online shopping achievements, "we want to do far more", saying that the benefits of globalisation had not been spread evenly, but that "digital disruption will bring us closer to a level playing field for young people and small businesses".

"We are not merely trying to shift buy/sell transactions from offline to online, nor are we changing conventional digital marketing models to squeeze out a little additional profit," he wrote.

"We are working to create the fundamental digital and physical infrastructure for the future of commerce, which includes marketplaces, payments, logistics, cloud computing, big data and a host of other fields."

The Alibaba group of companies, founded in 1999, accounts for 60 per cent of all Chinese online sales, and this year overtook Walmart as the world's largest retailer.


It has made Ma the second richest man in Asia, with a net worth of US$28.5 billion.


It's through cloud computing that Alibaba aims to expand its reach, and the company has been investing in the technology as part of a strategy that sees shoppers' data as the contemporary equivalent of mineral riches.

"Over the next 30 years, with computing power as the new 'technology breakthrough' and data as the new 'natural resource,' the landscape of retail, financial services, manufacturing and entertainment will be transformed," Ma wrote, forecasting a decades-long period of transformation.

"The internet revolution is a historical inflection point, much like when electricity was introduced, and it may have an even greater impact," he predicted.

Alibaba's mission, he said, was to "empower merchants with the ability to transform and upgrade their businesses for the future" and "help companies all over the world to grow".

"We believe, the commerce infrastructure we have created in China - marketplaces, payments, logistics, cloud computing and big data, all working in concert - can be applied on a global scale to lift up small and medium businesses and ordinary consumers around the world."

Eight years after launching, Alibaba Cloud hosts 35 per cent of Chinese websites, while delivering cloud computing and big data services.


Ma said Alibaba was constantly adapting to the changing e-commerce environment, as staying at the forefront of innovation was key to its continued success.

"In the coming years, we anticipate the birth of a re-imagined retail industry driven by the integration of online, offline, logistics and data across a single value chain," he said.

"With e-commerce itself rapidly becoming a "traditional business," pure e-commerce players will soon face tremendous challenges."

A shift to mobile revenue was one such change, he said, with mobile climbing from a single-digit percentage to three-years of total revenue from Alibaba's Chinese retail marketplaces, in the space of two years.

"This is why we are adapting, and it's why we strive to play a major role in the advancement of this new economic environment," Ma said.

Innovations like Alibaba's Qianniu app, which helps online businesses to improve sales and marketing while enhancing efficiency, were an example of the type of projects the company aimed to focus on.

"In 20 years, we hope to serve two billion consumers around the world, empower 10 million profitable businesses and create 100 million jobs," Ma said, adding: "This will be an even more difficult journey than the one behind us."

LISTEN : Newstalk ZB Political Editor Barry Soper speaks to Andrew Dickens on KPMG Early Edition

Mr Ma - who's worth around $50 billion - met with John Key in Beijing late yesterday. He made his money through founding the online commerce platform Ali Baba.

Standing alongside the Prime Minister, he heaped praise on the country, which he says is loved by many Chinese.

"At least 20 of my colleagues retired from Ali Baba. They're all very young, in their 40s, they all go to New Zealand."

"I asked what they do apart from the golf and green things and they say it's the people there."

It wasn't all social, with the Chinese billionaire also talking business.

Jack Ma told the entrepreneurs luncheon Kiwi businesspeople find it difficult to access the Chinese market.

Mr Ma said he wants to make that easier with his multi-platform organisation.

"We have Ali Baba University. We would either have courses in New Zealand or invite the entrepreneurs in New Zealand to stay in China for two weeks for training."

"The second is that we're going to open an Ali Baba business embassy next year in New Zealand."

John Key is in China meeting business and political leaders.



Innovation "Made in China" - The Case of Alibaba and the role of Net-based Small Business

Innovation is a key driver for economic development and social progress and small business is one of the best ways for people to express their willingness and capability to innovate.  Pervasive business ownership has, therefore, been the foundation in many societies for the continued improvement of people’s economic wellbeing. In the People’ Republic of China, however, private business ownership was prohibited between 1957 and 1978. Productive innovations were extremely restricted and as a consequence, China’s economy was on the verge of collapse by the end of 1978. The Chinese people had suffered a historic setback.

Alibaba’s growth, driven by unleashing grassroots entrepreneurship, has become an exemplar of China’s innovation in the 21st century.  Started by 18 young people in 1999, Alibaba has grown into a giant global internet platform and has made many invaluable contributions to China’s progress. Highlighting the importance of pervasive small business ownership in unleashing grassroots innovation and improving economic wellbeing, Professor Lowrey will discuss Alibaba’s innovative strategies and explain the economic theory behind its inspiring success.




Dr. Ying Lowrey is Professor of Economics at Tsinghua University and Deputy Director of the Tsinghua Research Center for Chinese Entrepreneurs, and a member of the Academic Committee for Alibaba Group Research Institute. Her teaching and research interests include economics of innovation and entrepreneurship in the internet and platform economy, the modern microfinance market, business demographics, characteristics of business owners, and the role of free enterprise and competition in the macroeconomy. 

She received her economics Ph.D. from Duke University, economics MA from Yale University and mathematics BS from Wuhan University. Before joining Tsinghua University in 2012, she served as senior economist at the Office of Advocacy, U.S. Small Business Administration and has taught economics at George Washington University and San Diego State University.


Selected publications 




Founder of Ali Baba commits his work for Chinese on internet to generate 100 million microentrepren…chris macraeNov 23, 200950 views

Founder of Ali Baba commits his work for Chinese on internet to generate 100 million microentrepreneur jobs in 2010s - who else would you vote at the centre of 100 million job creation leagues?
=====================update sumer 2016:
unlike oiher years spent with bangaldeshi inspired youth, i spent 2015-2016 mainly with a class of chinese female students - what brilliant minds and tirelss sources of human energy - i hope this summary of why the whole world can celebrate what jack ma is doing is near to the mark - but as always look forward to editing any errors which are mine alone washington dc text 240 316 8157
was english language tutoring

In 1995 he was sent to the usa on an exchange mission and encountered the worldwideweb - then unknown in China. He determined the www would be the biggest job creating innovation of his (or his generations) life and hopefully of every Chinese entrepreneur he could valuably link into.

Over the next 15 years his wizard coding teams went from something that was little more than an electronic yellow pages for small businesses to conceiving sustainability generation's 2 greatest retailing platforms china or the world may ever have seen..

the taobao platform is the most valuable job creating concept retailers have ever mediated because it reverses the western trend of globalisiation of retailers, bankers and big corporations squeezing out local and small enterprises from having a market; how taobao did that is an extraordinarily detailed story but note how Ma was concerned to ensure even the most cut-off of Chinese villagers could start up on tao bao (rural ecommerce is one of the innovations that Ma has led the www purpose to linkin)

His other mall was pitched at the more usual high cost fashions of big global merchandisers. Because of complex property laws in chinese cities, most expensive retailers are not much of a joy to shop in. So ali baba created a lifestyle -eg celebrate singles day 11/11 shopping virtually rather than the physically exhausting interaction in The West's biggest shopping days of the year)

SO 365/24/7 consumers of ali baba can choose who they value developing most with their purchasing power as well as searching merchandise with global image or local cultural joy

Alibaba has become china's and probably the word's largest retailing channel. It does this with next to no merchandise but brilliant coding so that every store front on its platforms delivers with equal reliability. Hunting out exactly how Ma forms partnerships so that big data analysis benefits the smallest enterprises and most local consumers ought to be a job of whomever is sustainability goals greatest economist.

Intriguingly to ensure he could compete with the chinese internet companies that raced to co-create the www that Ma had opened space for in china, Ma IPO'd Alibaba through a process 2010-2015 while developing his secret sustainability weapon under private ownership. AlIpay is china's number 1 financial inclusion delivery system and maybe global youth most humanly productive coding achievement to date.

Comparing china's top 10 internet properties with the west's is very interesting. Are the consuming behaviours on ali baba more sustainable than those on amazon or ebay or paypal? Are the learnng behaviours on baidu more sustaining of youth than on google or coursera or microsoft's linkedin. Time will tell but note how speaking english, chinese and coding (as well as mother tongue) are probably what educators anywhere on planet earth should NOW be most valuing their global youth's future freedom to thrive entrepreneurially around.

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